According to the survey carried out by the Public Opinion Center of the Universidad del Valle de México, 97% of people affirm that Mexico is violent or very violent for women, 23% think that they suffer violence because they are left, 20% for machismo and 18% due to “values” and “education”, according to the study Violence against women: Daily life and normalization of a problem.
The survey carried out in the context that UVM pointed to 2018 as the year of Awareness and Prevention of Gender Violence offers an overview of the perceptions of the Mexican population about violence against women, the situations that generate it, the types of violence that occur and the actions that must be taken to eradicate it.
37% of those surveyed said that in the last 3 months they have experienced or witnessed a violent act against a woman; Of these, 53% are women and 47% men. For 42% of those surveyed, home is the place where there is more violence, followed by the street or public spaces (20%), bars or clubs (16%), public transport (8%), school (7%) ) and work (7%).
Perception of violence
Respondents associated the word violence with aggression (27%), mistreatment (21%), and hitting (18%). For most, this type of behavior consists of a physical act (73%), followed by a verbal act (43%) and thirdly an emotional or psychological act (24%).
On a scale of 1 to 10, where 10 is very violent and 1 is non-violent, sexually abusing someone is the most violent action (9.8), followed by sexually harassing (9.6), hitting them with the fist (9.6), slap him (9), threaten him (8.9), do less (7.9), control his money (7.8), control his friendships (7.7), deny him opportunities for personal growth (7.6 ), watch over the couple (7.6), yell at them (7.2), and ignore them (6.5). These scores reflect that the population usually associates violence with situations that involve physical contact, but the association decreases in emotional, verbal or psychological aspects.
Thus, men and women equally consider situations involving physical contact or sexual connotation to be violent. For example, 99% think that handling a man to a woman on public transport is violent, 97% perceive as violence that a man says a phrase of a sexual nature to a woman and 97% consider that a leash / leash is violent. from a man to a woman on public transport.
In the following situations, the perception of violence differs according to gender. For example, for 54% of women, it is violent for a boyfriend to tell his girlfriend to cover her cleavage before entering a crowded place, while only 46% of the men surveyed consider this to be the case. Likewise, 54% of women consider it violent for a mother to tell her daughter to stop her activities and go to wash the dishes of her brother who finished eating, while only 46% of men consider the same situation violent. .
Perception of eradication of violence
85% of those surveyed believe that a woman who is a victim of violence by her partner should leave the relationship immediately and 12% consider that she should be given some opportunities before leaving the relationship. This opinion differs according to the gender of the respondent. Of the respondents who believe that women should leave the relationship, 53% are men and 47% are women, and of the respondents who believe that you should give them some opportunities, 67% are men and 33% are women.
While 53% believe that authorities are likely to punish a perpetrator of violence against women, while 57% of respondents think that it is unlikely or not likely that women will be encouraged to report if they are victims of violence, 86% consider that the aggressor is likely to want to take revenge against the woman if this complaint and 81% of the respondents believe that the aggressor is likely to be an acquaintance or relative. Lastly, 54% believe that women are not likely to admit that they are victims of violence, while only 47% consider that they are likely to admit it.
In general, respondents think that women have more rights than a decade ago, and 62% believe that men are also interested in gender equality.
Regarding the factors that could reduce the risk that women suffer violence are: homeschooling (21%), making stricter laws (20%), ending impunity (16%), having centers support for women (14%), equal opportunities to access education (12%), design public policies for gender equality (10%) and economic independence of women (8%).